Malaria Facts

Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Malaria breeds mostly in warmer climates, where there is an abundance of humidity and rain.

Malaria is not a contagious disease; it cannot be contracted through contact with an infected person, sexually or otherwise.

 

 

Human malaria is caused by four species of plasmodium parasites such as P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax. Humans occasionally become infected with plasmodium species that normally infect animals such as P.knowlesi.

However there are two of them are considered the most dangerous:

  1. P.falciparum – the most common malaria parasite in Africa. This species multiplies very quickly – causing severe blood loss and clogged blood vessels
  2. P.vivax – most commonly found outside of sub-Saharan Africa especially in Asia. This species can lie dormant – rise up to infect your blood months of years after the mosquito bite

 

SYMPTOMS

Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito.

A malaria infection is generally characterized by recurrent attacks with the following signs and symptoms:

  • Moderate to severe shaking chills
  • High fever
  • Sweating
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

 

DIAGNOSIS

To diagnose malaria disease mostly can do alternate methods for laboratory diagnosis include antigen detection using:

  1. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT – Antigen test) – as a alternative where reliable microscopic diagnosis is not available.
  2. Molecular diagnosis that known more accurate than microscopic but also more expensive and requiring a specialized laboratory
  3. Serology (Antibody test) – by using indirect immune - fluorescence (IFA) or enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) – serology test measures past malaria experience.

 

Early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for both rapid and effective disease management and surveillance. It

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